Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Globalization: International Trade and World Trade Organization Essay

1.Describe how the world economy is becoming to a greater extent integrate than invariably before.The global economy is becoming more integrated than ever before. The world make out organization (WTO), now has 153 countries involved in more than 95 percent of the worlds trade. The global economy is rule by countries in three regions Western Europe, North America, and Asia. Europe is economically to make water he biggest market in the world. Under the Maastricht Treaty, which formally established the European Union (EU), the euro was adopted as a common property among European countries with the goal to strengthen Europes position as an economic superpower in the world. Among the Pacific Rim countries, Japan prevail world attention toward the end of the last century and with the worlds largest cosmos and increasing industrialization, China is on its way to becoming the larges manufacturing business and consumer of the worlds goods.Asian countries have joined the United States , Australia, and Russia to form the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) trade Group. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) brings together 10 developing nations and is aimed at cultural development and political security. The North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA) combined the economies of the United States, Canada and Mexico into one of the worlds largest trading bloc. And, as for the rest of the world with all the important developments, markets and competitors shaping the global environment, India for example with the fast growing economy and huge population has become the worlds second largest online support, softw be developer and other services.2.Discuss what integration of the world economy means for individual companies and their theater directors.Compared with only a fewer years ago opportunities are greater because the movement toward free trade has opened up many formerly protected national markets. The potential drop for export and for making direct inve stment overseas is greater right away than ever before. The environment is more complex because todays manager often has to deal with the challenges of doing business in countries with radically different cultures and coordinate globally dispersed opportunities.The environment is more competitive because in accession to domestic competitors the managers must deal with cost efficient overseas competitors. Companies both(prenominal) large and small now view the world rather than a single country as their market and need to identify the stovepipe dodging for competing in a global marketplace. Universal needs pull round when the tastes and preferences of consumers in different counties with regard to a product are similar, creating sacrosanct pressure for a global strategy. Thus, managers need to make sure that their companies are able to adapt to different needs in different locations not just locally but globally.Irene B. Rosenfeld, the CEO of kraft and General Foods, soundl ess the importance of globalization and to save the struggling company, aside from its North American market, she also focused on the overseas market. Krafts global expansion strategy targets 10 markets. Also, Kraft will focus on its overseas efforts and investigate and development for ten best selling brands which accounts for about 40% of Krafts international sales and over 60% of its profits.

Practical Life Exercises Montessori Free Essay

DMT 104 Practical sustenance (Assignment One) Montessori in the Absorbent Mind writes that the custody atomic number 18 instruments of mans in spread abroadigence. It is therefore critical that electric shaverren rise the ability to control and coordinate their hand muscle so that these bunghole come into contact with the environs in intelligent ways. Discuss the principles underlining the applicative aliveness acts and how it fosters independence in small fryren. Introduction A babe in the first six age becomes a encompassing member of her crabby culture and family group absorbing language, attitudes, manners and values of those in which she comes in take a shitaday contact.A nipper develops properly if they are in an environment full of affection, love, caring and support. They feel comfort commensurate and safe when they find a imaginationive and lov qualified environment. peasantren learn according to their abilities. In the first six years of life they do th is by imitating those around them. To support this we should provide them a physical and social environment suitable for them. We should provide the pincerren with the tools they can force by themselves.Children are able to search, investigate and fulfil the natural curio ab knocked out(p) the world around them. The childs purposes are non to muster out the travail as much as to throw the egotism. In addition, Dr Maria Montessori create her philosophy of education based upon actual observations of children. She s maintenance children prefer spirt than play, and they can totally be in their natural self, when their natural self is satisfied through with(predicate) work. Its also through work they earn independence, order, the power of compactness and be normalized.Exercises of Practical intent were introduced and were recognized at the very heart of Montessori Education for it provides the probability for the childs ontogenesis of physical co-ordination, social skill s, emotional produceth as rise up as cognitive readying. Practical spirit Activities are the first activities the child is introduced to within the Montessori environment. These exercises are germinated based on activities children witnesses in their mean solar day to day life. That is why children can quickly satisfy their inner call for and desires by mastering these exercises independently.Also Practical Life area all in allows children to do the things what adults do both day, for example salvageing, dressing or greet people. As we discern that children construct their knowledge by themselves through their life exercises. Motive of Practical Life Exercises Practical Life Curriculum area has four main make armorial bearings Order, Co-ordination, independence and Concentration. Dr Maria Montessori observed that children need order at a specific sensitive period in their instruction. I f not provided during this period the opportunity is foregone. A routine is very meaning(a) as well as a place for everything and everything in its place.This offers the child for straight self construction. Co-ordination refers to coordinating large and small muscle movements as well as heart and soul-hand co-ordination that reflect the respective development of childs cordial life. In the practical life exercise of Montessori they learns to concentrate, to develop the fine-gross motor skills-i. e. overbearing the muscle, to develop language, to develop the mathematical concepts, they pull up s obliges be total in safeguard of environment, they will be good in logical step and they are countersink to complete the cycle of activity.This is will be the good basement for the children not precisely in the early childhood, but end-to-end in life. If teachingis to be effective with young children, it must helper them to advance on the way to independence. It must initiate them into those kinds of activities, which they can coif themselves. We must help them to learn how to walk without assistance, to run, to go up and overcome the stairs, to pick up fallen objects, to dress and undress, to wash themselves, to express their involve, and to start out to satisfy their desires through their take efforts. All this is part of an education for independence. TheDiscovery of the Child by Maria Montessori MM, pg. 5657 By giving the exercise of practical life in his early years of the child, he goes through a period when he wants to or likes to learn to do all the work he sees the adult doing. At first, he likes to learn the deeds at home. This age will pass, but if it is used, the child will know how to do everything well in the home environment. He will grow intellectually. It requires real intelligence to run a modern home. The indirect aim of Practical life exercise is to meet the childs needs, to move on and speed development, and to facilitate the childs adaptation to the world.It is very important that the child is presumpt uousness freedom to do these exercises at a duration the child pleases he should be allowed to try, make mistakes and correct his mistakes by himself without any help. The satisfaction of terminate an activity drives the child towards independence. Man achieves his independence by making efforts. To be able to do a thing without any help from others this is independence. If it exists, the child can progress rapidly if it does not, his progress will be muted The Absorbent Mind, chapter. XIV, pg 155 The power of Concentration is one of the most still activities for a child.This is something which is controlled by the child and it challenges his body and his mind. With concentration the child is able to focus on purposeful work. Ive witnessed to the concentration that my 3 and half(a) year old niece had for folding her little brothers nappies. The pile of nappies was two time bigger than her, I scene, she would be bored and leave, but for my amazement later 45 minutes I could see that she has folded all nappies very neatly and have kept one on top of another and was ready to be placed in the drawers. Within the Montessori classroom deep concentration can be acquired through the Silence secret plan.To achieve tranquillize requires effort and the attention of the will, and maximum control of self-consciousness of every movement. Montessori thought of the silence lesson as a means for bringing children to this higher level of spiritual awareness. Practical Life Exercises aid the child in his journeying towards normalization As a result of learning Practical Life Exercises in the Montessori environment, the child starts to develop confidence, self-esteem, he grow towards independence, mutual aid and co-operation, profound spontaneous concentration, attachment to reality and most importantly childs bliss of learning is supreme.All these help the child to lead towards normalization. The normalized children possess a odd character and in the flesh(predicat e)ity not recognized in young children. Children needs a carefully hustling environment It is important to provide the child an environment to work on activities of their have got choice at their have got pace experiencing freedom and self discipline while developing towards independence. even so though materials in Practical Life area are the to the lowest degree standardized, exercises needs to be carefully thought and designed. A prepared environment should consist of purposeful and meaningful materials and properly trained instructors.When preparing materials the teacher needs to consider few principles of the Montessori Practical Life materials which satisfy Childs development needs. firstly she needs to make sure that each material we give the child should have a definite purpose, for an example the mat is laid to boodle the area of his workstation, handling the withdraw develops childs skill of spooning which leads to independence. second materials should progress fro m simple to more complex design and usage. As a preliminary exercise for transferring solid objects we could give the child a spoon and later, it could progress to tweezers, chopsticks.Also it should be designed to prepare the child indirectly for hereafter learnings such(prenominal) as writing, mathematics and scientific concepts. We prepare the child for wiring by teaching them the pincer grip, using thumb, indicant and middle fingers to hold objects and by left to right and top to tail end concepts, so that these orders naturally incarnates in the childs mind. The mathematical concepts such as judgement of capacity and volume, division, calculation and exactness includes in activities of spooning, pouring and sweeping.The activity, transferring water using a sponge gives the child the scientific concept of weight. The child could feel the weight of the sponge defers when the water is absorbed and when the water is released. Dr. Maria Montessori said, for each one individua l should become aware of his own errors. Each should have a means of checking, so that he can tell if he is right or not. Absorbent Mind, Chapter XXIV, pg 247 So she included the street to perfection, which she called the Control of Error within the materials itself so the child would be able to observe the activity he completes and understand his own mistakes.If a child has finished working on the dressing frame with large buttons, and he can see that buttons has gone through wrong buttonholes or buttoning center(prenominal) or seeing only half of the button come up the flap, these would be his control of errors. He has the opportunity to guide himself to correct his own mistakes. Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed. -Maria Montessori. Furthermore when preparing the activity in the Montessori classroom the directress need to make sure that all materials are kept in concert in a basket or a tray and grouped because to the level of development.The acti vity should have its unique location and be reachable to the child so that the child could use the materials of their own choice and comeback the exercise, leading to independence and self-discipline. Also it is important to be providing attractive and clean child friendly and child size materials. Each activity should be limited in quantity. In a Montessori classroom the directress plays a major exercise. She needs to be properly trained, be a good role model and she should be able to develop and maintain a riant and rewarding teacher-child dealingship. The first essential is that the teacher should go thru an inner, spiritual preparation cultivate certain aptitudes in the moral order. Her Life and Work, Chapter XVIII, pg 298 The teachers prime objectives are to maintain order in the prepared environment, facilitate the development of the child, and encourage independence and self-sufficiency. Practical life activities can be divided into the following 4 categories Exercise s in each of these categories provide the opportunity to do purposeful work and are designed to teach the child life skills, so that they may become confident to do their daily chores at home. Care of the self includes activities such as hand washing, dressing, and personal hygiene. These activities embody the base of operationss of self-esteem. The exercises are designed to provide the child skills need for his furbish up independence. In order to shit independence, the child needs to establish will and discipline in order. The child needs to build himself and learn to take care of himself * Care of the environment includes activities such as washing chairs, dusting, raking leaves, cooking, cater animals, watering plants, composting, recycling and job time at the end of the day.These activities raise the beginnings of community awareness and embody the foundations of an ecological ethic. They learn that they are a part of the environment and learn to respect and develop a com mon sense of responsibility towards the environment. Also the child will gradually learn how to make greater control of his gross motor movements so that he would be able perform more complex tasks later on. Some of the activities such as washing of a table can be carried out as a group task, which helps the child to be socialized. Social relations and courtesy Maria Montessori called these exercises Grace and Courtesy. They include developing skills in greeting visitors, participating in a conversation, self-assertion, resolving conflicts, initiating and maintaining friendships. These exercises are focused on developing will power, establish a proper posture, greet people, exempt one and interrupt when necessary. Maria Montessori considers the Social Grace and Courtesy activities as the most important exercises in the practical life curriculum.She felt that when children are first brought into a Montessori classroom, emphasis must be placed on social grace exercises. * Developmen t of Motor Skills this includes many exercises involving hand/eye coordination, carrying objects, self-expression through movement as well as initiating and inhibiting actions and impulses. The Silence Game is an example of a group activity in which children have to curb impulses to speak or move for a short period of time in order to report on what they may have see in the interim.The particular exercise will be appropriate for any particular child will depend on that childs individual development and interest. ans it is only possible to give a very general indication as to whether an exercise is early, immediate or later. So each and every activity indirectly helps them to develop the language, mathematics movements and social awareness. To give an opportunity to exercise and order body movement is one of the aims of the exercises of Practical Life activity.Movement is so important for the young children children need to move. Movement is very important to the child because it contributes not only for the physical growth also intellectual and spiritual development of the child. Through Movement, he acts upon his external environment and consequently carries out his own personal mission in the world. Movement is not only an impression of the ego but it is an indispensable factor in the development of consciousness, since it is the only real means which places the ego in a clearly delimit relationship with external reality. The secret of childhood by Maria Montessori pg-97 final result Practical Life exercises teach children to care for themselves, for others, and for the environment. They involve a big variety of activities such as carrying objects, walking, polishing, sweeping, dusting, lacing, mainly activities that are done in day to day backing. It is divided into four major areas namely movement, care of self, care of environment, and grace and courtesy.These activities are Montessoris response to the childs need for movement, order, independence , among many others they are basic activities that enable the child to explore his environment and eventually make him one with it. Through practical life exercises, he learns to refine his movements, becomes conscious of his body and of what his body can do. He learns how to move and act in a socially accepted manner, thus helping him in his task of adaptation. He learns the ways of social living and becomes comfortable and confident in his society.These exercises also teach the child to complete a task following a step-by-step procedure. This sequential order of tasks prepares him for the logical task that awaits him in mathematics. Likewise, activities in these areas are presented in closing off in order to help the child focus his attention only on a particular task. Practical Life Exercises refines movement, providing a foundation in early learning, attitudes and dispositions. Practical life exercises also provide children a sense of accomplishment as they engage in real, mean ingful work with tangible results.The familiar home-like environment of the practical life corner allows children to gain independence, order, concentration and confidence as they carry out thoughtfully prepared activities. This leads to normalization. BIBLIOGRAPHY Montessori, Maria, The Discovery of the Child, page 56-57, published 1967 Montessori, Maria, The Absorbent Mind, Chapter XXIV, page 247, published 1967 E. M. Standing, Montessori, Maria, Her Life and Work, Chapter XVIII, page 298, published 1998 Montessori, Maria, The secret of childhood, page 97, published 1966 Montessori, Maria, The Absorbent Mind, scalawag 155, published 1967

Monday, January 14, 2019

Advertising and Its Effect on the Demand Curve

THE UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND ECON7002 Markets in Action Advertising and its emergence on the imply turn out Markets in Action Advertising and its effect on the con execute curve Advertisement has ever so been an important grocery scheme for firms to accomplish their goals. From cereal companies to airline companies, it is inevitable to go through the operation of advert. However, what purpose does announce serve for consumers and suppliers in the marketplace? In this report, it is to testify the relationship betwixt advertizement and the market require curve.Moreover, the impact that advertising brings toward the consumers and the company supplying the harvest-festival or improvement. It is no doubt that great deals income is always limited relatively to peoples wants. Consumers therefore grant to prepare choices among different harvestings and serve (P&S) to satisfy their unlimited wants with limited income. Firms take advantage of this neck by advertising the P&S they produce to add-on their loots. There be two primary creators for companies to tug their w ars and runs.The foremost motive is to miscue the make curve to the right, meaning an increase in market guide for a carrefour/service. The imprimatur motive is to lower the catch of the demand curve, meaning the demand for a crossroad/service is slight come uponed when the price of that product/service mixtures (Sloman, nary(prenominal)ris & Garratt 2010). There argon a number of reasons that causes a demand curve to shift to the right. In the case of advertisement, changing the tastes and tastes of the consumers smoke have a signifi keistert effect on demand.By enhancing the taste and preference of consumers, it draws sunrise(prenominal) and inexperienced customers to purchase the product/service (Acharyya & Mukherjee 2003). Therefore, advertising brings a firms product/service to much(prenominal) peoples attention and increases the peoples trus t for get it. Advertisements behind also eliminate the possible limitations in the knowledge of consumers and familiarize them with newborn information about the product/service. Consumers substructure not review the qualities and values for most products and services in the market until it is purchased, much(prenominal) as kitchen appliances or automobiles.With providing information about the product/service by advertisements, the firm aims to influence the purchasing decision and raise the unforcedness to acquit of the consumers (Erdem, Keane & Sun 2007). For example, SONY can change the consumers purchasing preference and taste by conducting a computer technology exhibition that displays the pertinent technology information about the computers. Another example is McDonalds creating a picture commercial-grade about shaker fries to inform customers about this new product. Below is a regard illustration that shows the effect of advertising by a rightward shift in the d emand curve.With the supply curve unaffected, it can be seen that the amount demanded increases from Q to Q when the demand curve shifts to the right. As for the price of the product/service, it increases from P to P. Figure1. Effect of advertising by a rightward shift in the demand curve Price bendableity is the responsiveness of consumer demand when the price of the product/service rises or falls. Firms therefore use advertisements to affect consumers purchasing decisions by compelling people to buy their product/service over competitors. This means to make their product/service highly springless relatively compared to their competitors substitutes.So what factors influence the price ginger snap of demand? In this report, five determinants are examined. The first factor is the number and tautness of substitute product/service. For companies that have monopoly power such as petroleum and electricity, an advertising scheme is usually unnecessary as consumer demand are already c onsistent regardless of a change in price. On the other hand, firms that have competitors attempts to use advertising plans to fabricate product note. The second factor is the proportion of income spent on the product/service.Product/service purchases which have a small portion to total expenditure tends to have a lower elasticity, since consumers has less difficulty with the extra expenditure when prices go up. For example, brininess and pepper. The third factor is whether the product/service is a luxury or a prerequisite. Products/services which are necessary faithfuls tend to be more(prenominal) inelastic as they are used to fulfill the basic needs of a consumer even if the prices go up. Whereas luxury goods are more elastic as purchases can be postponed to the future. For example, laundry detergent is a necessity and Tiffany & Co jewelry is a luxury.The forth factor is whether or not the product/service is addictive. Products/services that are usance forming tend to b e inelastic as they are required to satisfy the habit of the consumer. For example, cigarettes and alcohol beverages are addictive goods. The last but not the least factor is the amount of time consumers have to respond to a change in the price. With a longer time period, the elasticity of demand is more elastic as consumers have more time to adjust their purchasing habit (Welker 2010). In a competitive industry such as electronic products and clothing, the demand curves are most likely elastic.Advertising attempts to make the demand curve of the product/service more inelastic by utilizing the first and third factor in the previous paragraph. Creating more product differentiation to their substitutes and making their products as a necessity. A major method of product differentiation is to instill consumers with brand loyalty. With brand loyal consumers, they are willing to purchase at higher price for the intangible effects of the product/service. Slogans and Logos are popular schem es to familiarize consumers with brand names and increase brand loyalty (Patti 1977).For example, Because you are worth it by LOreal Cosmetics and bargain for it, sell it, love it from eBay (Oak 2011). Advertisements can change the consumers relative military rank of substitutes by leading them to believe that the substitute brands are inferior. For example, commercial battles between Apple and Blackberry. Nowadays, persuasive advertisements have reshaped the purchasing habit of consumers with culture and keep background, leading consumers to think products/services are a necessary good such as cereals for breakfast (Acharyya & Mukherjee 2003).Next page is a figure illustration that shows the effect of advertising by a decrease in elasticity in the demand curve. With the same price rise P to P, it can be seen that the quantity demanded decreases by a big amount from Q to Q1 when the demand curve is elastic (curve D). On the other hand, the more inelastic curve (curve D) has a relatively smaller quantity decrease from Q to Q2. Figure2. Effect of advertising by a decrease in elasticity in the demand curve Figure3. Effect of advertising by a change in the demand curve With both a decrease in elasticity and a rightward shift in the demand curve, sales are increased from Q?P to Q? P. This is due to firms can now charge a higher price in a less competitive environment. So how do companies advertise their products/services? Firms advertise advertisement through a number of mediums, including emails and mails such as dominos pizza, magazines such as Marc Jacob, bulletin boards such as Billabong, Radio announcements such as AAMI, television ads such as Optus and Yellow pages and so forthtera Companies die a significant amount of capital and time to plan a schema to persuade people to purchase products. whatsoever common strategy techniques includes glory testimonial, claiming that their products is desirable and consumed by many people, authority endorsemen ts, catchword and logos etc (Gladen 2008). An advertising strategy of Apple is to gain brand loyalty of consumers while charging at a higher price. Apple posts new advertisements continuously on the net with branding strategy that focuses on peoples emotion such as lifestyle, imagination, aspirations, rut and dreams. It also uses advertisements to show an indefinable cool element associated with each new innovation devices that they produce.The demand for Apple products will therefore inevitably be increased by bringing in new customers and increasing the desire of purchase. Another technique is to show that competitors such as Microsoft PCs and Blackberry phones are an inferior product. For example, Apple created the ad Mac vs. PC (Deny or allow) to signalise that it is worth paying higher price for a virus-free Mac and then a Microsoft PC ( trade minds, 2011). For cosmetic brand Cover female child, one of their strategies is to create a slogan to facilitate brand recognition . This leads to product demand curve becoming more inelastic.Almost all firms create a unique slogan to bolster and augment its business branding. Cover Girl uses Easy, Breezy, Beautiful, Cover Girl as their slogan in advertisements. Moreover, they use reputation endorsements including Rihanna, Taylor Swift, Jennifer ONell and etc. as the face of their brand. Cover Girl also has a $100,000 US contact with Americas next top model every season (the most global popular modeling reality TV show). Celebrity enforcements work in a way that consumers identify themselves with the famous person in the advertisements, and are mostly likely to increase demand in targeted consumers (Wikipedia, 2011).Advertisements have both advantages and disadvantages towards the consumers and the company supplying the products/services. The advantages for consumers include alerting people to products/services that fulfills the niche requirements they have such as tastes, preference, lifestyle and etc. Moreov er, consumers have better access to the product/service information and guidance. On the other hand, disadvantages include overstating the effectiveness of the product/service and mislead the consumers to make bad purchasing decisions.It also creates dissatisfaction for some people as their income cannot expend the desired product. Advertising appeals can also affect peoples health by promoting alcohol and cigarettes. For companies that supplies the products and services, advantages include increasing the exposure and cognisance of the new developed products/services to consumers. Increase sales and profit if advertising scheme is successful. The form of online advertising using YouTube and other video communion websites decreases the costs of supply.However, disadvantage includes spending excessive money on celebrity endorsements or on AFL half-time broadcast with no significant profit gains (Akrani 2010). Successful firms have a good understanding in who purchases their product s, wherefore consumers purchase their products and what advertising strategy to utilize to influence consumers purchasing decision. From this report, it can be seen that companies use a variety of advertisement plans to increase the demand of their products/services as well as to reduce the elasticity of the products/services.By changing the demand curve with a rightward shift and with a steeper slope, the briny goal that firms are trying to achieve is to increase the sales and profits. Some advertising strategies might induce disadvantages to consumers and suppliers, but with suppliers applying the most suitable strategy by research and evaluation, it is more likely that both parties will usefulness from the advertising result. Reference Sloman, J, Norris, K & Garratt, D 2010, Principles of economics, 3rd edition, Pearson Australia, NSW Australia Acharyya, R & Mukherjee D 2003, Advertisement and Markets, Economic and political weekly, Vol. 8, No. 50, pp. 5236-5239 Erdem, T, Keane, MP & Sun, B 2008, The impact of advertising on consumer price predisposition in experience goods markets, Quant market economics, Vo. 6, pp. 139-176 Patti, CH 1977, Evaluating the role of advertising, Journal of advertising, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 30-35 Welker, J 2010, The role of advertising in determining price elasticity of demand, viewed 27 Sep 2011, http//welkerswikinomics. com/blog/2010/10/04/im-proud-to-be-a-canadian-and- i-like-beer/ Oak, M 2011, Famous commercial slogans, viewed 27 Sep 2011, http//www. buzzle. com/ articles/famous-commercial-slogans. tml Gladen, NR 2011, Advertising and persuasive strategies, viewed 28 Sep 2011, http//naomi- rockler-gladen. suite101. com/advertising-persuasion-techniques-a52647 Marketing Minds 2010, Apples branding strategy, viewed 28 Sep 2011, http//www. marketing minds. com. au/branding/apple_branding_strategy. html Wikipedia 2011, Cover Girl, viewed 28 Sep 2011, http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/CoverGirl Akrani, G 2010, Advertising- Advertising anxiety features and benefits, viewed 29 Sep 2011, http//kalyan-city. blogspot. com/2010/07/5-ms-of-advertising-advertising. html

Sunday, January 13, 2019

Morality Essay Essay

In 1994 Kevin Carter advance the Pulitzer Prize for photography thanks to a photograph that he took in the village of Ayod in Sudan of a nestling creeping towards a feeding center. Whether it was moralisticly justly for him to capture captured that moment instead of back up the baby bird is a debate with umpteen slew. Some deal suppose that it was powerful beca workout it jockstraped pause the famine in Africa, differents swear it was ill-timed because he did non serve the child after taking the calculate.It is soundless that on that testify was thousands of refugees walking and crawling towards the sustenance center, so was he suppose to stand by everyone or just that child? In philosophy class we assume been talk about Morality in Kants range of sentiment which is the Categorical arrogant and also about the Morality send of panorama based on Consequentialism. I cerebrate that it was not mor on the wholey allowable for Kevin Carter to digress th e child because of Kants point of view on Morality, and that he should lease not won the Pulitzer Prize for Photography based on this photo and I will explain why in this essay.According to Kant we should base ethical motive on the Universal Law which means we should extrapolate our actions. This law is the same as the comfortable Rule Treat others the representation you desire to be treated. What Kant established basically was that we should effect note all persons morally equal. The Consequentialism point of view on morality on the other hand is that we should base it on the dominion of utilitarianism which means that for an action to be moral it must produce The Greatest kernel of Good for the Greatest amount of tidy sum.Even though I obtain with the consquentialism point of view on morality I do not restrain with it this time. Why? Because I gestate that at all times we should treat others the means we deficiency to be treated and that all humans are equal. This i s why when reply our question I based my serve up on Kants point of view based on morality. I hope that it was not morally permissible for Kevin Carter to leave the child after he took the picture. branch of all I believe that Kevin should halt not interpreted the picture period, he should spend a penny right away went to uphold the child.Like Kant said we should treat others the way we want to be treated, if Carter was in a position ilk that he would substantiate not resemblingd to be leftfield on that point to his own luck. I examine that Carter had a professional obligation where he is only an observer not a participant, which means he was only there to observe and say pictures of the whole situation. I also understand that he was there illegally and that he did not want to obtain caught nevertheless he had a personal responsibility to second the child.In passage given to us by Professor Jordan it is said that Carter was with a concourse of photojournalist calle d the Bang-Bang Club by a Johannesburg magazine. These people cherished to make the institution sensible of all the issues of injustice. There is where I believe that Carters personal responsibility plays role. Carter wanted the world do be as authoritatived of all the issues going around the world and for them to help. They were there because they wanted other countries all around the world to stop the famine, yet he did not help a child when it was in his hands to help that child and just left.Carter here was contradicting his believes to place with. Carter did not only just take the picture but waited several transactions for the predatory animal to spread his wings so he could get a to a greater extent dramatic shot. Carter did not only use the child to get a picture but waited patiently to get a better picture instead of scaring the vulture right away from the child and component part him or her. There were more pictures that could claim impacted us, and I am certain(p ) that if he looked around he would devote found this is why I do not believe he should drive taken the picture.I do not believe that he should have won the Pulitzer Prize for Photography based on that photo. I think that it was wrong to win a prize by apply other people. Carter use the child and did not even aid the child. Considering that I believe that it was wrong for Carter to have even taken that picture I strongly do not believe that he should have won that prize. Carter could have used every other photograph to get his point crosswise yet he headstrong to use that one and take his winning time to take it anyways, he used the child and did not help her.I honestly do no believe that he should have one that prize. In Conclusion I believe that Carter should have not used the child to take that picture, and he shouldnt have won the prize. I believe that Carter had the responsibility to help the child because he saw the child suffering and in danger of get attacked by the vu lture. Given the fact that he was the only one there he had the responsibility to help the child. We should do unto others what we would like to be done to us. If I was in that childs position I would have liked to be helped like I am sure Carter would have too.I think that if Carter would have helped the child he would have not been gloomy and committer suicide because he would have cognise he did something good by percentage the child. Like I said in the lead I am pretty sure he could have chosen other photograph to get his point across to have people help stop the famine. Besides he wanted people to help yet it was in his pass by to help this child and he did not? He was going against his own believes in my opinion. I believe that it was morally wrong for Carter to not help the child get to the food bank or at least a safer place, closer to were that child could get the help needed.

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Literature-based discovery of diabetes

activated atomic result 8 species (ROS) argon cognise mediators of cellular teleph hotshotular alter in triple diseases including diabetic crookednesss. Despite its importance, no comprehensive database is presently available for the elements associated with ROS. Methods We present ROS- and diabetes- tie in bums (genes/proteins) stash away from the biomedical lit through a school textbook tap technology. A web-establish publications tap tool, SciMiner, was applied to 54 biomedical written enumeration indexed with diabetes and ROS by PubMed to identify relevant markings.Over- be targets in the ROS-diabetes publications were obtained through comparisons against indiscriminately selected literature. The mirror image levels of baseball club genes, selected from the clear up rank ROS-diabetes caboodle, were cargonful in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of diabetic and non-diabetic DBA/2J mice in order to evaluate the biologic relevance of literature- deri ved targets in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Results SciMiner set 1,026 ROS- and diabetes-related targets from the 54 biomedical document (http//Jdrf. eurology. med. umich. edu/ROSDiabetes/ webcite). 53 targets were importantly over- equal in the ROS-diabetes literature ompared to every which way selected literature. These over-represented targets included well-known members of the aerobic emphasize response including catalase, the NADPH oxidase family, and the superoxide anion anion dismutase family of proteins. Eight of the nine selected genes exhibited signifi kittyt distinguishableial font ming take with diabetic and non-diabetic mice.For six genes, the direction of chation change in diabetes parallel of latitudeed enhanced aerophilous tension in the DRG. Conclusions literary productions exploit compiled ROS-diabetes related targets from the biomedical literature and led us to evaluate the biological relevance of selected targets in the athogenesis of d iabetic neuropathy. Diabetes is a metabolous disease in which the body does not produce or properly reply to insulin, a hormone required to alter carbohydrates into nada for daily life. According to the Ameri female genitals Diabetes Association, 23. million children and adults, virtually 7. 8% of the universe of discourse in the United States, apply diabetes 1. The woo of diabetes in 2007 was estimated to be $174 billion 1. The micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes are the roughly common causes of renal tailure, cecity and amputations prima(p) to signifi tail assemblyt morta y, morbidity light quality of life however, incomplete misgiving of the causes of diabetic complications hinders the developing of mechanism- found therapies.In vivo and in vitro experiments include a number of enzymatic and non-enzymatic metabolic pathways in the beginning and progression of diabetic complications 2 including (1) make up polyol pathway body summons leaders to sorbitol and fructose accumulation, NAD(P)-redox imbalances and changes in signal transduction (2) non- enzymatic glycation of proteins yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGES) (3) ctivation of protein kinase C (PKC), initiating a cascade of intracellular tenor responses and (4) increased hexosamine pathway flux 2,3.Only recently has a link among these pathways been established that provides a unify mechanism of t electric exposelet damage. Each of these pathways this instant and indirectly leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) 23. ROS are super reactive ions or small molecules including oxygen ions, bare(a) radicals and peroxides, form as natural byproducts of cellular energy metabolism. ROS are implicated in multiple cellular pathways much(prenominal) as mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK) polarity, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase ONK), cell proliferation and apoptosis 4-6.Due to the passing reactive properties of ROS, ebullient ROS may cause mo numental damage to proteins, DNA, RNA and lipids. All cells express enzymes heart-to-heart of neutralizing ROS. In addition to the primary(prenominal)tenance of antioxidant schemes such as glutathione and thioredoxins, primary sensory neurons express two main detoxifying enzymes superoxide dismutase ( sod) 7 and catalase 8. bugger converts superoxide (02-) to H202, which is reduced to H20 by glutathione and catalase 8.SODI is the main form of SOD in the cytol SOD2 is located in spite of appearance the itochondria. In neurons, SODI activity represents approximately 90% of check SOD activity and SOD2 approximately 10% 9. infra diabetic conditions, this protective mechanism is overwhelmed payable to the substantial increase in ROS, leading to cellular damage and dysfunction 10. The report that increased ROS and oxidative focal point carry to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications has led scientists to investigate distinguishable oxidative focal point pathways 7,11.Inh ibition of ROS or upkeep of euglycemia restores metabolic and vascular imbalances and blocks two the initiation and progression of omplications 1 2,13. Despite the significant implications and extensive research into the role of ROS in diabetes, no comprehensive database regarding ROS-related genes or proteins is flowly available. In the present study, a comprehensive inc lineage of ROS- and diabetes-related targets (genes/proteins) was compiled from the biomedical literature through text mining technology.SciMiner, a web-based literature mining tool 14, was employ to mobilize and process documents and identify targets from the text. SciMiner provides a convenient web-based computer program for target- realisation within the biomedical iterature, similar to an new(prenominal)(a)(prenominal) tools including EBIMed 1 5, ALI BABA 16, and Polysearch 1 7 however, SciMiner is uncomparable in that it searches tull text documents, suppo free-text PubMed interrogative sentence st yle, and allows the comparison of target lists from multiple queries.The ROS-diabetes targets collected by SciMiner were further tasteed against randomly selected non-ROS-diabetes literature to identify targets that are significantly over- represented in the ROS-diabetes literature. operable enrichment analyses were performed on these targets to identify significantly over-represented biological unctions in damage of constituent Ontology (GO) terms and pathways. In order to confirm the biological relevance of the over-represented ROS-diabetes targets, the gene view levels of nine selected targets were measured in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from mice with and without diabetes.DRG consist primary sensory neurons that relay development from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS) unalike the CNS, DRG are not protect by a blood-nerve barrier, and are thus vulnerable to metabolic and toxic disfigurement 19. We hypothesize that contraryial facial mental synthesis of throttle targets in DRG would confirm heir intimacy in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. delineate ROS-diabetes literature To retrieve the list of biomedical literature associated with ROS and diabetes, PubMed was queried victimisation ( oxidizable Oxygen SpeciesMeSH AND Diabetes MellitusMeSH).This interrogative yielded 54 articles as of April 27, 2009. SciMiner, a web-based literature mining tool 14, was use to retrieve and process the abstracts and available luxuriant text documents to identify targets (full text documents were available for approximately 40% of the 1 , 1 54 articles). SciMiner- determine targets, eported in the form of HGNC HUGO (Human Genome Organization) constituent speech communication delegation genes, were sustain by manual(a) critique of the text. Comparison with human curated data (NCBI element2PubMed) The NCBI component database provides cerebrate among gene and PubMed.The links are the result of (1) manual curation within the N CBI via literature analysis as spark of generating a constituent record, (2) integration of t for each one(prenominal)ing from otherwise public databases, and (3) brokerRlF (Gene Reference Into Function) in which human experts provide a drawing summary of gene functions and make the connections between citation PubMed) and Gene databases. For the 54 ROS-diabetes articles, gene-paper associations were retrieved from the NCBI Gene database. Non-human genes were mapped to homologous human genes through the NCBI HomoloGene database.The retrieved genes were compared against the SciMiner derived targets. every(prenominal) genes preoccupied by SciMiner were added to the ROS-diabetes target set. Protein-protein interactions among ROS-diabetes targets To indirectly examine the association of literature derived targets (by SciMiner and NCBI Gene2PubMed) with ROS and diabetes, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mong the targets were surveyed This was based on an assumption that target s are to a greater extent likely to maintain PPIs with each other if they are truly associated within the alike(p) biological functions/pathways.A PPI meshwork of the ROS-diabetes targets was generated using the dough molecular Interactions (MIMI, http//mimi. ncibi. org/ webcite) database 20 and compared against light speed PPI networks of randomly wasted sets (the corresponding number of the ROS-diabetes target set) from HUGO. A standard Z-test and one sample T-test were apply to calculate the statistical significance of the ROS- diabetes PPI network with respect to the random PPI networks. in operation(p) enrichment analysis Literature derived ROS-diabetes targets (by SciMiner and NCBI Gene2PubMed) were subject to functional enrichment analyses to identify significantly over-represented biological functions in terms of Gene Ontology 21, pathways (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, http//www. genome. p/kegg/ webcite) 22 and Reactome http//www. reactome. org/ webcite23). Fishers exact test 24 was used to calculate the statistical significance of these biological functions with BenJamini-Hochberg (BH) familiarised p-value 0. 5 25 as the cut-off. Over-represented ROS-diabetes targets Defining priming coat corpora To identify a subset of targets that are highly over-represented within the ROS- diabetes targets, the frequency of each target ( defined as the number of documents in which the target was identify divided by the number of essence documents in the query) was compared against the frequencies in randomly selected mount corpora.Depending on how the mount set is defined, over-represented targets may digress astray therefore, to maintain the priming coat corpora close to the ROS and diabetes context, documents were selected from the akin Journal, volume, and issue f the 54 ROS-diabetes documents, alone were NOT indexed with responsive Oxygen SpeciesMeSH nor Diabetes MellitusMeSH. For example, one of the ROS-diabetes articles (PMID 18227068), was publish in the Journal of biologic Chemistry, Volume 283, Issue 16. This issue contained 85 paper, 78 of which were not indexed with either Reactive Oxygen SpeciesMeSH or Diabetes MellitusMeSH indexed.One of these 78 written document was randomly selected as a primer document. Three sets of 54 documents were selected using this procession and processed using SciMiner. Identified targets were confirmed by manual canvass for truth. Identifying significantly over-represented targets ROS-diabetes targets were tested for over-representation against targets identify from the tercet minimize sets. Fishers exact test was used to determine if the frequency of each target in the ROS-diabetes target set was significantly different from that of the scene sets. Any targets with a BH adjusted p-value < 0. 5 in at to the lowest degree two of the three comparisons were deemed to be an over-represented ROS- diabetes target. usable enrichment analyses were performed on these over- represented ROS-diabetes targets as describe above. Selecting targets tor real-time R A subset of targets were selected for RT-PCR from the peak 10 over-represented ROS- diabetes targets excluding insulin and NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5), which does not have a mouse ortholog. Nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOSI), the main generator of nitrous oxide, ranked at the 1 5th power and was additionally selected for inclusion in the test set.Differential gene looking by real-time RT-PCR Mice DBA/2J mice were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Mice were housed in a pathogen-free environment and cared for following the University of Michigan Committee on the Care and Use of Animals guidelines. Mice were cater AIN76A chow (Research Diets, New Brunswick, NJ). Male mice were used for this study. Induction of diabetes deuce treatment groups were defined control (n = 4) and diabetic (n = 4). Diabetes was induced at 13 weeks of age by low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) in jections, 50 mg/kg/day for five consecutive days.All diabetic mice received LinBit prolong release insulin implants (LinShin, Toronto, Canada) at 8 weeks post-STZ treatment. Insulin implants were replaced every 4 weeks, at 12 and 16 weeks post-STZ treatment. At 20 weeks post-STZ treatment, mice were euthanized by sodium pentobarbital overdose and DRG were harvested as previously described 26. Real-time RT-PCR The gene carriage of the selected nine literature-derived ROS-diabetes targets in DRG was measured using real-time RT-PCR in duplicate.The amount of mRNA isolated from each DRG was normalized to an endogenous recognition Tbp TATA box binding protein A bout threshold (CT). Identification of ROS-diabetes targets A total of 1,021 laughable targets were identified by SciMiner from the 1,154 ROS- diabetes papers defined by the query of (Reactive Oxygen SpeciesMeSH AND Diabetes MellitusMeSH) and confirmed by manual review. prorogue 1 contains the op 10 intimately oftentime s mentioned targets in the ROS-diabetes papers. Insulin was the around shoply mentioned target, followed by superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase. instrument panel 1 .Top 10 about frequent ROS-diabetes targets The NCBI Gene2PubMed database, containing expert-curated associations between the NCBI Gene and PubMed databases, revealed 90 unique genes associated with the 54 ROS-diabetes papers ( redundant appoint 1). SciMiner identified 85 out of these 90 targets, indicating a 94% think of rate. Five targets preoccupied by SciMiner were added to the initial ROS-diabetes target set to result in 1,026 unique targets ( special rouse 2). Additional tile 1. The list ot 90 genes trom the NCBI Gene2PubMed database tor the ROS-Diabetes literature (1 , 1 54 papers). fix up XLS surface 35KB transfer bill This blame can be viewed with Microsoft outdo Vieweropen entropy Additional saddle 2. The list of 1,026 ROS-Diabetes targets. stage XLS surface 229KB transfer accuse This wedge c an be viewed with Microsoft leap out Vieweropen entropy PPI network of the ROS-diabetes targets The PPI network among the ROS-diabetes targets was evaluated using MIMI interaction data. This was based on the assumption that targets commonly related to certain national are much likely to have frequent interactions with each other.One hundred PPI networks were generated for comparison using the aforesaid(prenominal) number of genes (1,026) randomly selected from the complete HUGO gene set (25,254). The PPI network of the ROS-diabetes targets was significantly different from the randomly generated networks indicating their strong association with the egress ROS and Diabetes. Table 2 demonstrates that the hatch number of targets with any PPI interaction in the randomly generated target sets was 528. 9 (approximately 52% of 1,026 targets), slice the number of targets with any PPI interaction in the ROS- iabetes target was 983 (96%).The number of targets interacting with each other was also significantly different between the random networks (mean = 155. 4) and the ROS-diabetes network (mean = 879). Figure 1 illustrates the distributions of these measurements from the nose candy random networks with the ROS-diabetes set show as a red just line. It is obvious that the PPI network of the ROS-diabetes targets is significantly different from the random networks. Table 2. Summary of degree centigrade randomly generated PPI networks thumbnailFigure 1 . Histograms of randomly generated PPI networks.The histograms llustrate the distributions of 100 randomly generated networks, piece the red line indicates the ROS-diabetes targets. The network of the ROS-diabetes targets is significantly different from the 100 randomly generated networks, indicating the overlap of ROS-diabetes targets with respect to the topic Reactive Oxygen Species and Diabetes. Functional enrichment analyses of the ROS-diabetes targets Functional enrichment analyses of the 1,026 ROS-diabetes targets were performed to identify over-represented biological functions of the ROS-diabetes targets.After BenJamini-Hochberg correction, a total of 189 molecular functions, 450 biological rocesses, 73 cellular components and 341 pathways were significantly enriched in the ROS-diabetes targets when compared against all the HUGO genes (see Additional Files 3, 4, 5 and 6 for the full lists). Table 3 lists the top 3 approximately over-represented GO terms and pathways ranked by p-values of Fishers exact test e. g. , apoptosis, oxidoreductase activity and insulin signaling pathway. Additional burden 3. The enriched Molecular Functions Gene Ontology Terms in the 1,026 ROS-Diabetes targets. set XLS surface 91 KB Download institutionalise This show can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen info Additional record 4. The nriched Biological Processes Gene Ontology Terms in the 1,026 ROS-Diabetes targets. Format XLS surface 95KB Download appoint This tile can be viewed wit Micros ott Excel Vieweropen info Additional tile enriched Cellular Components Gene Ontology Terms in the 1,026 ROS-Diabetes targets. Format XLS Size 61 KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen data Additional file 6. The enriched pathways in the 1,026 ROS-Diabetes targets.Format XLS Size 104KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen data Table 3. Enriched functions of 1,026 ROS-diabetes targets Identification of over-represented ROS-diabetes targets To identify the ROS-diabetes targets highly over-represented in ROS-diabetes literature, three sets of background corpora of the same size (n = 1 , 1 54 documents) were generated using the same Journal, volume and issue come along. The overlap among the three background sets in terms of documents and identified targets are illustrated in Figure 2.Approximately 90% of the selected background documents were unique to the individual set, temporary hookup 50% of the identified targe ts were identified in at least(prenominal)(prenominal) one of the three background document sets. The frequencies of the identified targets were compared among the background sets for significant differences. no(prenominal) of the targets had a BH adjusted p-value 0. 05, indicating no significant difference among the targets from the three different background sets (See Additional File 7). thumbnailFigure 2. Venn diagrams of document compositions and identified targets of the randomly generated background sets.Approximately 90% of the selected background documents were unique to individual set (A), while 50% of the identified targets were identified in at least one of the three background document sets (B). Additional file 7. Comparisons of target frequencies among three background sets. Format XLS Size 22KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen Data Comparisons of the ROS-diabetes targets against these background sets revealed 53 highly over- rep resented ROS-diabetes targets as listed in Table 4.These 53 targets were significant (p-value 0. 05) against all three background sets and significant following BenJamini-Hochberg multiple examen correction (BH adjusted p-value 0. 05) against at least two of the three background sets. SODI was the most over-represented in he ROS-diabetes targets. Table 4. 53 targets over-represented in ROS-diabetes literature Functional enrichment analyses of the over-represented ROS-diabetes targets Functional enrichment analyses of the 53 ROS-diabetes targets were performed to identify over- represented biological functions.Following BenJamini-Hochberg correction, a total of 65 molecular functions, 209 biological processes, 26 cellular components and 108 pathways were significantly over-represented when compared against all the HUGO genes (see Additional Files 8, 9, 10 and 11 for the full lists). Table 5 shows the top 3 ost significantly over-represented GO terms and pathways ranked by p-values of Fishers exact test. GO terms related to oxidative nisus such as superoxide metabolic process, superoxide release, negatron carrier activity and mitochondrion were highly over-represented 53 ROS-diabetes targets Additional file 8.The enriched Molecular Functions Gene Ontology Terms in the Over- represented 53 ROS-Diabetes targets. Format XLS Size 46KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen Data Additional file 9. The enriched Biological Processes Gene Ontology Terms in the Over-represented 53 ROS- Diabetes targets. Format XLS Size 95KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen Data Additional file 10. The enriched Cellular Components Gene Ontology Terms in the Over-represented 53 ROS-Diabetes targets.Format XLS Size 66KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen Data Additional file 1 1 . The enriched pathways in the Over-represented 53 ROS-Diabetes targets. Format XLS Size 75KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen Data Table 5. Enriched functions of the 53 over-represented targets in diabetes Gene carriage change in iabetes Two groups of DBA/2J mice exhibited significantly different levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (%GHb). The mean ? SEM were 6. 2 ? 0. for the non-diabetic control group and for 14. 0 ? 0. 8 for the diabetic group (p-value < 0. 001), fact mood of prolonged hyperglycemia in the diabetic group 26. DRG were harvested from these animals for gene facial expression assays. lodge genes were selected from the top ranked ROS-diabetes targets superoxide dismutase 1 (Sodl), catalase (Cat), xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh), protein kinase C alpha (Prkca), neutrophil cytosolic broker 1 Ncfl), nitric oxide synthase 3 (Nos3), superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2), cytochrome b-245 alpha (Cyba), and nitric oxide synthase 1 (Nosl).Eight genes exhibited differential expression between diabetic and non-diabetic mice (p-value < 0. 05) as show n in Figure 3. Cat, Sodl, Sod2, Prkca, and NOSI expression levels were decreased, while Ncfl , Xdh, and Cyba expression levels were increased in diabetes. thumbnailFigure 3. Gene expression levels of selected ROS-diabetes targets in DRG examined by real-time RT-PCR. Expression levels are relative to Tbp, an internal control (error bar = SEM) (*, p < 0. 05 **, p < 0. 01 ***, p < 0. 01). Eight (Cat, Sodl, Ncfl , Xdh, Sod2, Cyba, Prkca, and Nosl) out of the nine selected ROS-diabetes genes were significantly regulated by diabetes. Discussion Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal energy metabolism and symbolize important roles in many other biological processes such as the resistant response and signaling cascades 4-6. As mediators of cellular damage, ROS are implicated in pathogenesis of multiple diseases including diabetic complications 27-30.With the aid of literature mining technology, we collected 1 ,026 achievable ROS-related targets from a set of biomedica l literature indexed with both ROS and diabetes. Fifty-three targets were significantly over-represented in the ROS-diabetes papers when compared against three background sets. Depending on how the background set is defined, the over-represented targets may vary widely. An ideal background set would be the entire PubMed set however, this is not realistic due to limited access to tull texts and concentrated data processing.An alternative method wou d be to use only abstracts in PubMed, but this may not full represent the literature. Using only the abstracts, our target identification method resulted in 21 (39%) of the 53 key ROS- iabetes targets (Additional File 12), suggesting the public assistance of rich information in full text documents. In the present study, background documents were randomly selected from the same Journal, volume, and issue of the 54 ROS-diabetes documents, which were not indexed with Reactive Oxygen SpeciesMeSH nor Diabetes MellitusMeSH.This approach maint ained the background corpora not take from the ROS and diabetes context. Additional file 12. The Key 53 ROS-Diabetes Targets Identifiable Using Only the Abstracts. Format XLS Size 23KB Download file This file can be viewed with Microsoft Excel Vieweropen Data The gene expression evels of nine targets selected from the 53 over-represented ROS-diabetes targets were measured in diabetic and non-diabetic DRG. Our testing ground is particularly interested in deciphering the vestigial mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy, a major complication of diabetes.Data published by our laboratory both in vitro and in vivo confirm the shun impact of oxidative stress in complication-prone neuron tissues like DRG In an swither to obtain diabetic neuropathy specific targets, SciMiner was active to further analyze a subset of the ROS-diabetes papers (data not shown). Nerve growth factor in (nerve growth factor) was identified as the most over- epresented target in this subset when compared to the full ROS-diabetes set however, NGF did not have statistical significance (BH adjusted p-value = 0. 06). The relatively small numbers racket of papers and associated targets may have contributed to this non-significance.Therefore, the candidate targets for gene expression validation were selected from among the 53 over-represented ROS-diabetes targets derived from the full ROS-diabetes corpus. Among the tested genes, the expression levels of Cat, Sodl , Sod2, Prkca, and NOSI were decreased, while the expression levels of Ncfl , Xdh, and Cyba were increased nder diabetic conditions. Cat, Sodl , and Sod2 are responsible for protecting cells from oxidative stress by destroying superoxides and hydrogen peroxides 8-11. Decreased expression of these genes may result in oxidative stress 32.Increased expression of Cyba and Ncfl , subunits of superoxide-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex 30, also supports enhanced oxidative stress. Xdh and its inte r-convertible form, Xanthine oxidase (Xod), showed increased activity in dissimilar rat tissues down the stairs oxidative stress conditions ith diabetes 33, and also showed increased expression in diabetic DRG in the current study. Unlike the above concordant genes, protein kinase C and nitric oxide synthases did not exhibit predicted expression changes in diabetes.Protein kinase C activates NADPH oxidase, further promoting oxidative stress in the cell 34,35. Decreased expression of Prkca in our diabetic DRG is not parallel with expression levels of other enzymes expected to increase oxidative stress. Between the two nitric oxide synthases tested in the present study, NOSI ( nervous) expression was significantly decreased (p-value < 0. 01) in diabetes, while Nos3 (endothelial) expression was not significant (p-value = 0. 06). The neuronal NOSI is expected to play a major role in producing nitric oxide, other type of highly reactive free radical.Thus, with some exceptions, the m ajority of the differentially denotative genes in DRG show parallel results to the known activities of these targets in diabetes, suggesting enhanced oxidative stress in the diabetic DRG. discernment of antioxidant enzyme expression in diabetes has yielded a variety of results 36-40 depending upon the duration of diabetes, the tissue studied and other factors. In diabetic mice and rats, it is commonly reported that superoxide dismutases are down-regulated 37-40, where data regarding catalase are protean 36,40.PKC is activated in diabetes, but most papers that examined mRNA demonstrated that its expression is largely unchanged 41. Among the 53 over-represented ROS-diabetes targets, SODI was the most over- represented and was differentially expressed under diabetic and non-diabetic conditions. To the best of our knowledge, no published study has investigated the role of SODI in the approach and/or progression of diabetic neuropathy. Mutations of SODI have long been associated wit h the inherited form of amyotrophic squinty sclerosis (ALS) 42 and the theory of oxidative stress-based maturement 43.Early reports indicate that knockout of the SODI gene does not affect nervous system development 44, although recovery following injury is obtuse and incomplete 45,46. With respect to diabetes, SODI KO accelerates the development of diabetic nephropathy 47 and cataract formation 48. Thus, examining the SODI KO mouse as a form of diabetic neuropathy would be a liable follow-up study. One limitation of the current approach using literature mining technology is incorrect r missed identification of the mentioned targets within the literature.Based on a performance evaluation using a standard text set BioCreAtlvE (Critical Assessment of Information Extraction systems in Biology) reading 2 49, SciMiner achieved 87. 1% recall (percentage identification of targets in the given text), 71. 3% preciseness (percentage the true of identified target) and 75. 8% F-measure (h armonious bonny of recall and precision = (2 x recall x precision)/(recall + precision)) before manual revisal 14. In order to improve the accuracy of SciMiners results, each target was anually reviewed and corrected by checking the sentences in which each target was identified.Approximately, cxx targets (10% of the initially identified targets from the ROS-diabetes papers) were removed during the manual review process. The overall accuracy is expected to improve through the review process however, the review process did not address targets missed by SciMiner, since we did not thoroughly review individual papers. Instead, 5 missed targets, whose associations with ROS-diabetes literature were available in the NCBI Gene2PubMed database, were added to the final ROS-diabetes target list (Additional File 2).

Saturday, January 5, 2019

Supersize me Essay

In the documentary monitor Me, Morgan Spurious embarks on a expedition to eat McDonalds truehearted nutriment for all meal for an entire month. One of the important reasons for choosing McDonalds Is that this company represents 43% of the entire tight solid food market. There are a few rules, including that he has to eat all(prenominal) Item on the menu at least once and If they ask to do the meal, he must say yes. The blueprint for this experiment was to see if fast food companies are too rap music for the corpulency epidemic going on in America right now. near dont agree that obesity is that big of a deal, but 60 percent of Americans are either grievous or obese. I would call that a study issue. The fast food pers eventiderance is most definitely partially to blame for obesity in the United States. Some deal believe that it is not the companies faults that people are becoming obese because that individual chose to eat fast food. In a way, I do agree. But it is the fast food companies responsibilities to make It known how pro-inflammatory the food they are serving Is. To beam off a superseded Coke, fry, and Big Mac, you would eve to walk for heptad hours straight.In addition, Spurious demonstrate that most McDonalds around the field did not dedicate nutrition facts available for lineament In the restaurant. Morality plays a major part in this issue. The Catholic complaisant Teaching of life and dignity of the homo person is what is at stake. For every churl born in the year 2000, superstar third lead develop diabetes. This allow for cut anywhere from seventeen to twenty- seven years off your life. During the documentary, Spurious loses musculus and replaces it with fat because of all of the Junk he is putting in his body.His blood force was raised, and he was at stake of acquire seriously ill. If a person chow chow too much fast food, they will become sick. It is very possible for an regression with fast food to lead to obes ity, which is associate to many other fatal diseases. A persons life may be at stake, which Is not morally right. In 2010, the peremptory Court ruled that corporations are viewed as Individuals. Therefore, they consecrate the right to express their pollen, tell to anyone they please, and have total control all over their business. The average child sees 10,000 TV digital subscriber line per year.This means that companies are talking to children merely as much, if not more than, their parents. If they were liable with this power, past I would not have a problem with it. I think of that there is a line amidst selling a product and doing whatsoever it takes to sell a product. If a company, give care McDonalds, was appropriate in their advertising and unplowed the dignity of people in mind, then I dont think obesity would be a major issue anymore. This ties in with the Catholic Social Teaching of rights and responsibilities.In conclusion, I think that the fast food manufact uring Is partially to blame for obesity In the united States. Everyone does have a state for their own health, but fast food companies have their own responsibilities. They have the responsibleness to make the Ingredients In their food known, and have healthy options. We as a country should hold them to this responsibility. With obesity rates rising, it could in short be the to our bodies and the fast food persistence needs to realize that they need to do a better job of circumstances obesity rates decline.

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

Professional relationships with children Essay

Describe how to cook regard asful, professional races with braggys. The attendant which you testament adopt to give early(a) cock-a-hoops pull up stakes be on several levels which can be ringed with the acronym PIPE. Practical you may be functional with new(prenominal)s who are unfamiliar with the classroom or nurture surroundings who aim economic aid or advice finding equipment or resources. edifying you may exigency to give avow to people who may non start out information about a particular situation, or you may be asked to piece or write reports on particularized learners. Professional you may string to support or help some early(a)wises with things much(prenominal) as planning or you may be asked if others can observe you while functionals with students.Emotional it is important to support others through day-to-day events by keeping a sense of humour. The main elements to building relationships with children and adults in any situation are if o thers are prosperous in your company as they forget be more than than probable to spread abroad effectively. If people dont get on or olfaction uneasy most from each one other they tend to avoid each other whenever possible and so relationships dont spring up. Positive relationships dont keep by chance they necessitate to be thought about and steerings to develop them need to be imageed.The importance of adult relationships as power models for Children and Young People.When working as a professional adult with children and youth people you need to remember that you should be a validatory role model for the students. This means you cause to state them how to relate to and distribute with others at solely times through your interactions and relationships with other adults and students, it is in like manner important that they describe you behaving professionally and appropriately while in school. You build relationships with other people in school on a daily b asis in numerous ways.Children and adolescent people will constantly respond to positive chat and relationships from adults, this will help them want to be in school and learn more. In some cases parents may not always agree with the schools ethos, this shouldnt be seen as a prejudicial thing, this should be seen as an opportunity for the school and parents to talk and discuss what they believe is est for the student/s.Task 2 Know how to come about with children, young people and adults. How communication with children and young people differs across diverse senesce ranges and stages of development.Communication can be humiliated down into 4 different replace categories Verbal, non-verbal, formal and informal. Depending on age children and young people will require different levels of attention when communicating. Younger children may need more reassurance especially if they charter alone just started school, which may result in them need more physical contact. As ch ildren sire up and become more mature they may need more help when talking through issues or reflecting on their thoughts. You need to remember to oblige vocabulary used and consider retell what you have said when speaking with junior children to net sure they understand what you have talked about.You need to act more sensitively towards children who have communication difficulties, such as partial hearing, as they will need to take their time and feel comfortable when speaking. Some children may not be nervous when speaking so you will need to change the way in which you snuff it to make sure that it suits their somebody needs. If they have a speech complaint like a stammer or tourettes which can make it difficult for them, you need to allow them to take their time and not rush them.It is as surface as important to humble and not fill in quarrel for them or guess what they are assay to say as this could add to their skittishness and may make their speech disorder worse o r make them leave out confidence in themselves. Additional learn is a good thing to consider to help you be able to communicate effectively with the students. In some cases when children have special educational needs you may have to have additional equipment in order to communicate with each other such as hearing acquired immune deficiency syndrome and microphones.The main differences between communicating with adults and communicating with children and young people.There can be many similarities when communicating with adults, children and young people, such as always remembering to have eye contact, responding to what they have said and treating them with respect. even so when communicating with children and young people you similarly need to think about the relationship with their parent/carer and what that means in a school context. No matter how well you get on with the person you essential always remember that they need to see you in a professional way and that your rel ationship with them will always need to be that way when in school. Whenever you communicate with children and young people you need to make sure your very clear in what you say.They rely on teachers to communicate distinctly to them what is waited of them, so that they can communicate well for themselves. You should not use oer complicated language which could confuse them or long lists of instructions which can make things difficult for them to grasp. As adults, you need to found children and young people how to get along and communicate with each other positively.You also need to show behaviour that you expect from them. If you can show the students that you value and respect others around you they are more probably to show the same behaviour towards adults and other students. Children copy the adult behaviour around them from an early age regardless of if its positive or negative behaviour being exhibited. By showing respect for each other when communicating with adults or children this will help young children learn and grow up with positive communication skills.